Skip to main content

What is vinculum notation?

What is vinculum notation?

Standard numerals can only be used for numbers up to 3999. Vinculum notation allows us to write numerals up to 3999999. We use bracket notation as a keyboard-friendly alternative to vinculum notation.

Standard roman numerals can only represent numbers up to 3999. An additional system or notation was eventually created for large numbers over 3999 and up to 3999999.

This additional system is called Vinculum notation.

The method is very simple. A bar is placed over a numeral character to signify that the character should be multiplied by 1000. For example, the number 5000 in vinculum notation would be:


In other words, 5 * 1000.

With ‘thousands’ represented with a bar, the remainder of the number is expressed in standard numerals. For example, the number 5015 would be expressed as:


As with standard numerals, vinculum notation numerals run from left to right, from highest to lowest.

Our conversion tools allow you to use bracket notation, a keyboard-friendly equivalent to vinculum notation. When you enter a number over 3999 into our number converter tool we show you the solution in bracket notation and vinculum notation.